How It Works

Several neurobiological mechanisms may account for how acupuncture works, from changing neurotransmitter levels, including dopamine and serotonin, to working with the fascial tissue network of the body (Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies, June 2014).

Data suggests acupuncture is capable of moderating brain functions through the regulation of central neurotransmitters (Acupuncture Therapy for Neurological Diseases, 2010).

Brain imaging study demonstrates acupuncture causes biochemical changes in the brain associated with changes in headache intensity of migraines (Journal of Pain Research, Apr 2018). 

The therapeutic effects of acupuncture may stem from needle manipulation and mechanical signaling through the body’s connective tissue (The FASEB Journal, Oct. 2001).

Insights gained from acupuncture research have expanded the knowledge of how acupuncture works, including broadening the physiologic understanding of chronic pain and enhancing knowledge of connective tissues, and informed biomedical research (Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Jan. 2016).

Study suggests acupuncture decreases cortisol levels, which can directly impact stress levels (European Journal of Anaesthesiology, April 2007).

Paper discusses current knowledge of acupuncture’s effects on the central nervous system and provides insight on the treatment of hypertension with acupuncture (Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Sept. 2011).

Pilot study shows significant influence of acupuncture on cerebral blood flow in patients post-stroke (Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Jan. 2016).

Acute + Chronic Pain

Research suggests acupuncture may improve nerve function at the wrist, leading to long-term relief for carpal tunnel syndrome (Brain: A Journal of Neurology, 2017).

Mounting evidence supports that acupuncture is effective, safe, and cost-effective for treating several chronic pain conditions, including low back, neck, shoulder, knee pain, and headaches (National Center for Biotechnology Information, July 2017).

Meta-analysis from nearly 18,000 patients suggests acupuncture is effective in treating chronic pain, including back and neck pain, osteoarthritis, chronic headache, and shoulder pain (JAMA Internal Medicine, Oct. 2012).

Research suggests acupuncture is highly beneficial for pain severity in patients with TMJ (Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies, Dec. 2010).

Review suggests acupuncture diminishes pain and improves functional mobility and quality-of-life in patients with osteoarthritis (BMC Alternative & Complementary Medicine, Aug. 2014).


Study suggests acupuncture may be effective in treating depression in major depressive disorder (MDD) patients (Journal of Psychiatric Research, Jan. 2017).

Systematic review suggests acupuncture, combined with antidepressant medication, is effective and safe in treating depression. Moreover, this treatment combination appears to result in greater therapeutic effects than antidepressant medication alone (Journal of Affective Disorders, May 2015).


Trial suggests acupuncture may be a safe treatment option for chronic constipation (Annals of Internal Medicine, Dec. 2016).

Meta-analysis finds acupuncture may improve diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome better than medications and with fewer side effects (Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, May 2018).

Meta-analysis of six studies suggests acupuncture shows clinical and statistically significant control of irritable bowel syndrome symptoms (World Journal of Gastroenterology, Feb 2014).

Study finds acupuncture may be a safe and effective treatment option for mild and moderate Crohn's disease, and can improve the common symptoms (Chinese Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Jul 2016).


Study suggests short-term acupuncture may help improve fatigue levels in patients with chronic fatigue (Trials, 2015).

Trial finds acupuncture and moxibustion improved fatigue in patients with chronic fatigue (Scientific Reports, Nov 2016).


Meta-analysis concludes acupuncture lowers blood pressure in patients already taking medications for high blood pressure or hypertension (Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, March 2014).


Study finds acupuncture beneficially weakens the common cold and its symptoms (Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Dec 2016).

Study suggests cupping may positively affect the immune system (Journal of Religion and Health, Jan 2013).

Women's Health

Review of 23 studies suggests acupuncture affects sex hormones in women, supporting sex drive and relieving gynecological issues such as menopause, ovarian dysfunction, and menstrual cramps (Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Nov 2018).

Study finds acupuncture reduces moderate-to-severe menopause symptoms (BMJ Open, 2019).

Systematic review suggests acupuncture may reduce menstrual pain and associated symptoms more effectively when compared to no treatment or NSAIDs (Medicine Baltimore, June 2018).

Review and preliminary data indicates acupuncture may improve menstrual health (International Journal of Women’s Health, Mar 2014).

Review of ten studies and current literature suggests acupuncture reduces endometriosis-related pain (PLoS One, Oct 2017).

Research finds repeated acupuncture treatments improve frequency of ovulation and hormone levels in women with PCOS (American Journal of Physiology, May 2013).

Pregnancy + Fertility

Research demonstrates acupuncture increases the success rate for IVF by 50 percent (Fertility and Sterility, Apr. 2002).

Review suggests acupuncture can support fertility, including women having difficulty conceiving, and help with a range of gynecological conditions (International Journal of Women’s Health, March 2014).

Systematic review of six studies suggests there is high-level evidence to support the use of acupuncture for treating depression during pregnancy (Medical Acupuncture, June 2013).

Skin Conditions

Systematic review of 24 dermatologic studies concludes acupuncture improves outcomes in the treatment of several skin conditions, including dermatitis, chloasma, pruritus, urticaria, hyperhidrosis, and facial elasticity (Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Sept. 2015).

Pilot study results show a reduction in itch intensity in patients with eczema after acupuncture treatment (Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Apr. 2011).

Systematic review reveals there may be promising evidence of the benefit of acupuncture in treating psoriasis (Complementary Medicine Research, March 2015).


Research review shows acupuncture has a profound influence on regulating sleep and wakefulness through a wide variety of potential neural and/or hormonal mechanisms (Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, Feb. 2011).

Systemic review suggests acupuncture appears to be effective in the treatment of insomnia (Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, Nov. 2009).

Brain research reveals acupuncture may improve quality of life and sleep after treatment (Explore (NY), July-Aug. 2015).

Stress + Anxiety

Review concludes that acupuncture may be a promising treatment for anxiety (Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem, June 2016).

Review of evidence-based studies suggests acupuncture may provide very real, positive outcomes for treating anxiety disorders  (CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics, June 2011).



Anxiolytic effects of Julibroside C1 isolated from Albizzia julibrissin in mice (Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, July 2013)

American Skullcap

Anti-oxidative and DNA protecting effects of flavonoids-rich Scutellaria lateriflora (Natural Products Communications, 2013)

Herbal medicine for depression, anxiety and insomnia: a review of psychopharmacology and clinical evidence (European Neuropsychopharmacology, 2011)

American Skullcap (Scutellaria lateriflora): a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study of its effects on mood in healthy volunteers (Phytotherapy Research, 2014)

Amla Fruit

Effect of Emblica officinalis (fruit) against UVB-induced photo-aging in human skin fibroblasts (Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Oct 2010)

Antioxidant, anti-collagenase and anti-elastase activities of Phyllanthus emblica, Manilkara zapota and silymarin: an in vitro comparative study for anti-aging applications (Pharmaceutical Biology, Sept 2016)

Anemarrhena Root

The genus Anemarrhena Bunge: A review on ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and pharmacology (Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Apr 2014)

Inhibition of UVB-induced wrinkle formation and MMP-9 expression by mangiferin isolated from Anemarrhena asphodeloides (European Journal of Pharmacology, Aug 2012)

Angelica Dahurica Root

Analgesic effect and mechanism of the three TCM-herbal drug-combination Tou Feng Yu pill on treatment of migraine (Phytomedicine, Jun 2011)

Anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic effects of methanol, ethanol, and water extracts of Angelicae Dahuricae Radix (Journal of Oral Science, 2016)

Coumarins from the roots of Angelica dahurica cause anti-allergic inflammation (Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine, 2017)

Artichoke Leaf

Pharmacological Studies of Artichoke Leaf Extract and Their Health Benefits (Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, Dec 2015)

Protective effect of artichoke (Cynara scolymus) leaf extract against lead toxicity in rat (Pharmaceutical Biology, Sept 2013)

Artichoke leaf extract for treating hypercholesterolaemia (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, March 2013)

Ashwagandha Root

Effects of Ashwagandha (roots of Withania somnifera) on neurodegenerative diseases (Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 2014)

Pharmacologic overview of Withania somnifera, the Indian Ginseng (Cellular & Molecular Life Sciences, 2015)

Antistressor effect of Withania somnifera (Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 1999)

Adaptogenic and cardioprotective action of ashwagandha in rats and frogs (Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2000)

Evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect of Withania somnifera root on collagen-induced arthritis in rats (Pharmaceutical Biology, Mar 2014)

Astragalus Root

The effect of Astragaloside IV on immune function of regulatory T cell mediated by high mobility group box 1 protein in vitro (Fitoterapia, Jun 2012)

Anti-Aging Implications of Astragalus Membranaceus (Huangqi): A Well-Known Chinese Tonic (Aging and Disease, Dec 2017)

Atractylodes Root

Effects of an Atractylodes lancea rhizome extract and a volatile component β-eudesmol on gastrointestinal motility in mice (Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Jan 2003 & May 2012)

Effect of the rhizomes of Atractylodes lancea and its constituents on the delay of gastric emptying (Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Jan 2003)

Bupleurum Root

Radix Bupleuri: A Review of Traditional Uses, Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, and Toxicology (BioMed Research International, 2017)

Radix Bupleuri ameliorates depression by increasing nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, 2015)

Herbal Medicine for Anxiety, Depression and Insomnia (Current Neuropharmacology, 2015)

Antidepressant-like effects of the Radix Bupleuri and Radix Paeoniae Alba drug pair (Neuroscience Letters, 2016)

Cardamon Seed

Pharmacological Studies of Cardamom Oil in Animals (Pharmacological Research, Jul 1996)

Gastroprotective effect of cardamom, Elettaria cardamom fruits in rats (Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Jan 2006)

Chinese Yam

Antioxidant and Antitumor Activities of the Extracts from Chinese Yam (Dioscorea opposite Thunb.) Flesh and Peel and the Effective Compounds (Journal of Food Science, Jun 2016)

Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of Taiwanese yam (Dioscorea japonica Thunb. var. pseudojaponica (Hayata) Yamam.) and its reference compounds (Food Chemistry, Nov 2013)

Chysanthemum Flower

The anti-osteoporosis and antioxidant activities of chemical constituents from Chrysanthemum indicum flowers (Phytotherapy Research, Apr 2015)

Anti-inflammatory components of Chrysanthemum indicum flowers (Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, Jan 2015)

Cistanches Root

Antifatigue activity of phenylethanoid-rich extract from Cistanche deserticola (Phytotherapy Research, Feb 2010)

Herba Cistanche (Rou Cong-Rong): One of the Best Pharmaceutical Gifts of Traditional Chinese Medicine (Frontiers in Pharmacology, Mar 2016)

Yang/Qi invigoration: an herbal therapy for chronic fatigue syndrome with yang deficiency? (Evidence-Based Alternative and Complementary Medicine, Feb 2015)

Codonopsis Root

Traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of Codonopsis: A review (Journal of Ethnopharmacological Medicine, 2018)

Codonopsis lanceolata Extract Prevents Diet-Induced Obesity in C57BL/6 Mice (Nutrients, Nov 2014)

Antiobesity Effect of Codonopsis lanceolata in High-Calorie/High-Fat-Diet-Induced Obese Rats (Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, May 2013)

Coix Seed

Potent in vitro anti-proliferative, apoptotic and anti-oxidative activities of semi-purified Job's tears (Coix lachryma-jobi Linn.) extracts from different preparation methods on 5 human cancer cell lines (Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Jul 2016)

Red Ginseng and Semen Coicis can improve the structure of gut microbiota and relieve the symptoms of ulcerative colitis (Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Mar 2015)

Adlay (seeds of Coix) is a Potential Cancer Chemopreventive Agent toward Multistage Carcinogenesis Processes (Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, Oct 2012)

Costus Root

Anti-inflammatory sesquiterpenes from Costus speciosus rhizomes (Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Dec 2015)

Anti-allergic effects of sesquiterpene lactones from the root of Aucklandia lappa Decne (Molecular Medicine Reports, Nov 2015)

Cumin Seed

Enhancement of digestive enzymatic activity by cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) and role of spent cumin as a bionutrient (Food Chemistry, Oct 2008)

Effect of the cumin cyminum L. Intake on Weight Loss, Metabolic Profiles and Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Overweight Subjects: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial (Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, Mar 2015)

Cuminum cyminum and Carum carvi: An update (Pharmacognosy Reviews, Jan-Jun 2011)

Dandelion Root

In vitro and in vivo hepatoprotective effects of the aqueous extract from Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) root against alcohol-induced oxidative stress (Food and Chemical Toxicology, Jun 2010)

Taraxacum official (dandelion) leaf extract alleviates high-fat diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver (Food and Chemical Toxicology, Aug 2013)

The diuretic effect in human subjects of an extract of Taraxacum officinale folium over a single day (Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Aug 2009)

Eclipta Leaf

Anti-inflammatory constituents from Eclipta prostrata using RAW264.7 macrophage cells (Phytotherapy Research, Sept 2011)

Lipid lowering activity of Eclipta prostrata in experimental hyperlipidemia (Journal of Ethnopharmacology, May 2006)

Eleuthero Root

Evidence-based efficacy of adaptogens in fatigue, and molecular mechanisms related to their stress-protective activity (Current Clinical Pharmacology, Sept 2009)

Anti-fatigue activity of extracts of stem bark from Acanthopanax senticosus (Molecules, Dec 2010)

Neuroprotective effects of Eleutherococcus senticosus bark on transient global cerebral ischemia in rats (Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Jan. 2012)

Fennel Seed

Foeniculum vulgare Mill: A Review of Its Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, Contemporary Application, and Toxicology (BioMed Research International, Aug 2014)

Fenugreek Seed

Fenugreek seed extract inhibit fat accumulation and ameliorates dyslipidemia in high fat diet-induced obese rats (Biomed Research International, Apr 2014)

Effects of fenugreek, Nigella, and termis seeds in nonalcoholic fatty liver in obese diabetic albino rats (Arab Journal of Gastroenterology, Mar 2015)

Forsythia Fruit

Phytochemistry, pharmacology, quality control and future research of Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl: A review (Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2018)

Chemical Constituents from the Fruits of Forsythia suspensa and Their Antimicrobial Activity (Biomedical Research International, 2014)

Ginger Root

Preventive and Protective Properties of Zingiber officinale (Ginger) in Diabetes Mellitus, Diabetic Complications, and Associated Lipid and Other Metabolic Disorders: A Brief Review (Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Nov 2012)

A review of the gastroprotective effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) (Food & Function, Jun 2013)

Goji Berry

Biological activities and potential health benefit effects of polysaccharides isolated from Lycium barbarum L. (International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Mar 2013)

A review of the anticancer and immunomodulatory effects of Lycium barbarum fruit (Inflammopharmacology, Dec 2012)

Antioxidant, Antimicrobial Effects and Phenolic Profile of Lycium barbarum L. Flowers (Molecules, Basel, Switzerland, Aug 2015)

Griffonia Seed

Anxiolytic-like effect of Griffonia simplicifolia Baill. seed extract in rats (Phytomedicine, July 2011)

Honeysuckle Flower

Lonicera japonica Thunb.: ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and pharmacology of an important traditional Chinese medicine (Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Oct 2011)


A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, prospective clinical study to demonstrate clinical efficacy of a fixed valerian hops extract combination in patients suffering from non-organic sleep disorder (Phytotherapy Research, 2007)

Sleep disorders: a single dose administration of valerian/hops fluid extract (dormeasan) is found to be effective in improving sleep (Holistic Nursing Practice, 2009)

Isatis Root

Antiviral activity of Isatis indigotica root-derived clemastanin B against human and avian influenza A and B viruses in vitro (International Journal of Molecular Medicine, 2013)

Jade Screen (Astragalus, Atractylodes + Siler Root)

Potential effectiveness of Chinese herbal medicine Yu ping feng san for adult allergic rhinitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Nov 2017)

Jujube Seed

Hypnotic effect of jujubosides from Semen Ziziphi Spinosae (Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2010)

Suanzaoren Formulae for Insomnia: Updated Clinical Evidence and Possible Mechanisms (Frontiers in Pharmacology, 2018)

Kudzu Root

Puerarin: a review of pharmacological effects (Phytotherapy Research, Jul 2014)

Tectoridin, an isoflavone glycoside from the flower of Pueraria lobata, prevents acute ethanol-induced liver steatosis in mice (Toxicology, Sept 2010)

Lemongrass Stem

Effects of Cymbopogon citratus Stapf water extract on rat antioxidant defense system (Journal of the Medical Association of  Thailand, Aug 2014)

Licorice Root

Study of the distribution patterns of the constituent herbs in classical Chinese medicine prescriptions treating respiratory disease by data mining methods (Chinese Journal of Integrated Medicine, Aug 2013)

Anti-tussive principles of Glycyrrhizae radix, a main component of the Kampo preparations Bakumondo-to (Mai-men-dong-tang) (European Journal of Pharmacology, May 2003)

Lotus Seed

Photoprotective Effect of Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) Seed Tea against UVB Irradiation (Preventative Nutrition and Food Science, Sept 2015)

Current Advances in the Metabolomics Study on Lotus Seeds (Frontiers in Plant Science, June 2016)

Magnolia Bark

Biphenyl-type neolignans from Magnolia officinalis and their anti-inflammatory activities (Phytochemistry, Jan 2013)

Magnolia Flower

Magnoliae flos inhibits mast cell-dependent immediate-type allergic reactions (Pharmacology Research, 1999)

Chemistry and bioactivity of Flos Magnoliae, a Chinese herb for rhinitis and sinusitis (Current Medicinal Chemistry, 2008)

Medicated Leaven

Influence of different processing techniques of massa medicata fermentata on their amylase activity (Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi, Jul 2012)

Milk Thistle Seed

New therapeutic potentials of milk thistle (Silybum marianum) (Natural Product Communications, Dec 2013)

Milk thistle and its derivative compounds: a review of opportunities for treatment of liver disease (Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Jan-Feb 2013)

Nut Grass Root

Protective effect of Cyperi rhizoma against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neuronal damage (Journal of Medicinal Food, 2010)

Identification of Neuroactive Constituents of the Ethyl Acetate Fraction from Cyperi Rhizoma Using Bioactivity-Guided Fractionation (Biomolecules & Therapeutics, 2016)


Herbal medicine for depression, anxiety and insomnia: a review of psychopharmacology and clinical evidence (European Neuro-psychopharmacology: The Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology, Dec 2011)

A double-blind, placebo-controlled investigation of the effects of Passiflora incarnata (passionflower) herbal tea on subjective sleep quality (Phytotherapy, Aug 2011)

Pearl Powder

Pearl extract enhances the migratory ability of fibroblasts in a wound healing model (Pharmaceutical Biology, Mar 2013)

Efficacy of protein rich pearl powder on antioxidant status in a randomized placebo-controlled trial (Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Jan 2018)

Peony Root

Comparative studies of paeoniflorin and albiflorin from Paeonia lactiflora on anti-inflammatory activities (Pharmaceutical Biology, 2014)

Anti-Inflammatory and Immunomodulatory Effects of Paeonia Lactiflora Pall., a Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine (Frontiers in Pharmacology, 2011)

Chemical constituents isolated from Paeonia lactiflora roots and their neuroprotective activity against oxidative stress in vitro (Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry, Oct 2009)

Effects of peony glycosides on mice exposed to chronic unpredictable stress: further evidence for antidepressant-like activity (Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2009)


A review of the bioactivity and potential health benefits of peppermint tea (Mentha piperita L.) (Phytotherapy Research, Aug 2006)

Platycodon (Balloon Flower)

Platycosides from the Roots of Platycodon grandiflorum and Their Health Benefits (Preventive Nutrition and Food Science, 2014)

Anti-allergic activity of a platycodon root ethanol extract (Internal Journal of Molecular Science, 2010)

Poria Mushroom

Biological activities and potential health benefits of polysaccharides from Poria cocos and their derivatives (International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Jul 2014)

Diuretic activity of some fractions of the epidermis of Poria cocos (Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Dec 2013)

Pseudostellaria Root

Polysaccharide of radix pseudostellariae improves chronic fatigue syndrome induced by poly I:C in mice (Evidence Based, Complementary and Alternative Medicine Journal, Jun 2011)

Protective effects of Radix Pseudostellariae polysaccharides against exercise- induced oxidative stress in male rats (Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine Journal, 2013)

Red Citrus Peel

Anti-neuroinflammatory activity of nobiletin on suppression of microglial activation (Biological Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 2010)

Hesperidin, nobiletin, and tangeretin are collectively responsible for the anti-neuroinflammatory capacity of tangerine peel (Citri reticulatae pericarpium) (Food and Chemical Toxicology, Sept 2014)

Red Ginseng Root

Red ginseng relieves the effects of alcohol consumption and hangover symptoms in healthy men: a randomized crossover study (Food and Function, Mar 2014)

Red Ginseng and Semen Coicis can improve the structure of gut microbiota and relieve the symptoms of ulcerative colitis (Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Mar 2015)

Red ginseng root extract mixed with Torilus fructus and Corni fructus improves facial wrinkles and increases type I procollagen synthesis in human skin: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (Journal of Medicinal Food, Dec 2009)

Reishi Mushroom

Ganoderma lucidum: a potential for biotechnological production of anti-cancer and immunomodulatory drugs (Recent Patents on Anti-Cancer Drug Discovery, 2013)

Rhodiola Root

Clinical trial of Rhodiola rosea L. extract SHR-5 in the treatment of mild to moderate depression (Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 2007)

Rhodiola plants: Chemistry and biological activity, Journal of Food & Drug Analysis, Sept 2015

Rhodiola rosea: a possible plant adaptogen (Alternative Medicine Review: A Journal of Clinical Therapeutic, June 2001)

Rose Hips Fruit

The effectiveness of a standardized rose hip powder, containing seeds and shells of Rosa canina, on cell longevity, skin wrinkles, moisture, and elasticity (Clinical Interventions in Aging, Nov 2015)

In vivo anti-inflammatory effect of Rosa canina L. extract (Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Sept 2011)

Schisandra Berry

Identification of a novel anti-inflammatory compound, α-cubebenoate from Schisandra chinensis (Journal of Ethnopharmacology, April 2014)

Adaptogens in mental and behavioral disorders (The Psychiatric Clinics of North America, Mar. 2013)

Sedative and hypnotic activities of the ethanol fraction from Fructus Schisandrae in mice and rats (Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2007)

Sedative and hypnotic effects of supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction from Schisandra chinensis in mice (Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, 2016)

Shatavari Root

Asparagus racemosus attenuates anxiety-like behavior in experimental animal models (Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, May 2014)

Shatavarin IV elicits lifespan extension and alleviates Parkinsonism in Caenorhabditis elegans (Free Radical Research, Dec 2017)

Identification of antioxidant compound from Asparagus racemosus (Phytotherapy Research, Sept 2004)

Sichuan Lovage Root

A traditional Chinese formula composed of Chuanxiong Rhizoma and Gastrodiae Rhizoma (Da Chuanxiong Formula) suppresses inflammatory response in LPS -induced RAW 264.7 cells through inhibition of NF-κB pathway (Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2017)

Siler Root

Management of respiratory disorders in a Chinese medicine teaching clinic in Australia: review of clinical records (Chinese Medicine, Nov 2015)

Sprouted Rice

Cereal sprouts: composition, nutritive value, food applications (Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 1980)

Tangerine Peel

Anti-neuroinflammatory activity of nobiletin on suppression of microglial activation (Biological Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 2010)

Management of respiratory disorders in a Chinese medicine teaching clinic in Australia: review of clinical records (Chinese Medicine, Nov 2015)

Triphala (Amla, Bibhitaki + Haritaki)

The anti-inflammatory effect of triphala in arthritic-induced rats (Pharmacology and Biology, Jan 2015)

Immunomodulatory effects of triphala and its individual constituents: a review (Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nov-Dec 2014)

Tulsi Leaf

Efficacy of Ocimum sanctum for relieving stress: a preclinical study (Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice, 2012)

Anti-stress Activity of Ocimum sanctum: Possible Effects on Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis (Phytotherapy Research, 2016)

Efficacy of an Extract of Ocimum tenuiflorum (OciBest) in the Management of General Stress: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study (Evidence Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine, 2012)

Tulsi - Ocimum sanctum: A herb for all reasons (Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine, Oct-Dec 2014)

Turmeric Root

Curcumin targeted signaling pathways: basis for anti-photoaging and anti-carcinogenic therapy (International Journal of Dermatology, June 2010)

Curcumin induces heme oxygenase-1 in normal human skin fibroblasts through redox signaling: relevance for anti-aging intervention (Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, Mar 2011)

Valerian Root

Valerian for sleep: a systematic review and meta-analysis (American Journal of Medicine, 2006)

Extract of valerian root (Valeriana officinalis L.) vs. placebo in treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder: a randomized double-blind study (Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine, 2011)

Sedative and sleep-enhancing properties of linarin, a flavonoid-isolated from Valeriana officinalis (Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior, Feb 2004)